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Commodity dependence in the energy sector

The European Union is enormously dependent on the import of energy – more than half of the energy required in the EU had to be imported in 2015. Most important provider is Russia, supplying all important sources of energy: Oil, coal and gas. However, it is striking that the total import of each of the three raw materials is decreasing.

  • Overall, the 28 member states of the EU imported 270 billion US-Dollars’ worth of oil in 2015. Top supplier was Russia, followed by Norway and Saudi Arabia. The ten biggest trade partners covered 82 percent of the total imports.
  • The most important trade partners for gas were also Russia and Norway – more than half of the imports originate in both countries.
  • Coal covers the greatest distance on its way to the EU. 82 percent of all coal imports originate in only four countries – Russia, USA, Columbia and Australia. In total, 14 billion US-Dollars’ worth of coal are imported into the EU.

Click to view interactive visualization.