Paris - Home confinement, schools, shops and borders closed, gatherings banned. Here are the main measures being taken in Europe to fight the spread of the novel coronavirus.
- Confinement -
France has followed Italy and Spain in imposing a strict lockdown, prohibiting all but "necessary movements" like shopping and medical visits and banning gatherings for the next two weeks, on pain of fines.
Austria and the Czech Republic have also taken strict confinement measures.
German citizens also have to "stay at home", and not go on holiday.
Britons have been told to avoid "non-essential contact" and travel. Elderly people and pregnant women there are advised to go into isolation for three months.
Greece and Italy have imposed a 14-day quarantine on all arrivals.
People returning from the main coronavirus hotspots must stay at home for two weeks in Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Norway, Russia and Slovakia.
- State of emergency -
Armenia, Kazakhstan, Moldova and Switzerland have declared states of emergency.
In France, 100,000 police have been deployed to control peoples' movements.
- Borders controlled or closed -
European Union leaders were holding a videoconference to decide to close the outer borders of the 27-nation bloc for 30 days.
Hungary and Spain have closed their land borders.
Germany has stepped up border controls with several countries, only allowing through goods transit and border workers.
Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Lithuania and Slovakia have announced the closure of their borders to foreigners, with Slovakia making an exception for Poles.
Russia has closed its land borders with Norway and Poland.
Austria has closed its border with Italy and Switzerland.
Moldova has closed most of its land borders from midnight.
- Schools closed -
Schools, universities and creches are closed in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and Ukraine. In Sweden only high schools and universities are closed.
- Gatherings banned -
In Belgium, Cyprus, France and Italy all gatherings are banned.
Different countries have set widely different caps on the number of people who can get together.
In Turkey, collective prayers are suspended and places of worship closed.
- Businesses closed -
Austria, Bulgaria, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Slovenia and Ukraine have ordered the closure of all places and shops admitting the public.
Non-essential shops are closed in Andorra, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, and Spain.
Restaurants, bars, nightclubs and cinemas are closed all over Europe including pubs in Ireland and brothels in the Netherlands.
Hungary has closed public places but not shops, while Greece has closed its museums and archaeological sites.
Pubs shuttered on St Patrick's Day in Dublin
- Transport disrupted -
Britain has grounded most of its air fleet.
France has announced a gradual reduction of long-distance transport, including buses, planes and trains.
In Germany regional rail transport will also be heavily reduced. Lufthansa will slash up to 90 percent of its long-haul capacity
Poland has cancelled all domestic flights.
Austria has suspended rail links with Italy and air links with Britain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Switzerland and Ukraine.
Turkey has suspended air links with six countries, Bulgaria with Italy and Spain, and Romania with Italy.
Slovenia has halted public transport.