Europe's military aid for Ukraine's war effort has for the first time outstripped that of the United States, according to the German-based Kiel Institute for the World Economy's Ukraine aid tracker.

NATO allies in Europe, including non-EU members Britain, Norway and Turkey, have promised 50.6 billion euros ($54.2 billion) in military aid to Ukraine, well ahead of the United States with 42.1 billion euros, Kiel's figures on aid pledged between January 24, 2022 and July 21, 2023 showed.

In terms of aid already delivered or due to be provided in the short-term, however, the US is still out in front, Kiel's figures showed.

The US is still the largest country donor of military aid to Ukraine, ahead of Germany, which has pledged several billion euros in long-term aid, and the United Kingdom.

But the most generous countries in terms of GDP persistently remain the three former Soviet states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

In all, the EU and NATO members have pledged 95 billion euros in military aid to Ukraine, according to Kiel's figures.

Chart showing the largest aid contributors to Ukraine

- From pistols to tanks -

In the first month of Russia's invasion, NATO allies sent Ukraine mostly defensive weapons but the list quickly expanded to include howitzers, multiple-rocket launchers and missile-defence systems.

As the war entered its second year, the weapons grew heavier.

Germany in February gave in to President Volodymyr Zelensky's pleas to allow deliveries of its state-of-the-art Leopard tanks.

The US meanwhile delivered rocket-propelled precision bombs.

The UK announced it would send Storm Shadow missiles to Ukraine, becoming the first country to provide longer-range weapons to Kyiv.

By the end of April, 230 western tanks and 1,550 armoured vehicles had been delivered according to NATO.

Patriot missile system 

- Next: F16s -

In February this year, Zelensky began clamouring for Western warplanes to replace ageing Soviet models in providing air cover for Ukraine's highly-anticipated counter-offensive.

After initial fears of escalating the war, US President Joe Biden in May gave the green light for other countries to provide the jets, on the understanding that Kiev not use them to attack Russian territory.

Denmark and the Netherlands announced on August 20 that they would give Ukraine 61 F-16s once its pilots are trained to use them.

Factfile on the F-16 Fighting Falcons

Washington in July also announced plans to supply Ukraine with controversial cluster munitions, despite condemnation from human rights groups.

As Ukraine's three-month-old grinding counteroffensive drags on, with only modest gains, the Pentagon made another controversial announcement, saying it would send Kiev depleted uranium tank ammunition.

The ammunition helps punch through heavy armour but its use in past conflicts has been associated with health problems such as cancer and birth defects.

Graphic explaining enriched uranium ammunition